Viking Symbols and Meanings – Odins-Glory

Viking Symbols and Meanings

Below You can find some of the symbols found in Viking culture

Brief Overview of Viking Symbols

Symbols played an important role in Norse culture.  The spirituality of the Norse Vikings was so ingrained in their culture and thought process that they had no word for religion.  There was no separation (as there so often is today) between faith and reality.  The cosmic forces and fate were active in everything.  Thanks to the Marvel movies, nearly everyone now knows about Thor's hammer (Mjölnir) which was a very popular choice for Vikings to use in their jewelry as represented in this ancient Danish artifact to the right.

The Vikings also had letters (known as runes), but writing itself was sacred and even magical.  So, while the Norse culture was very rich in poetry, stories, and songs, this was all transmitted orally.  The stories of Odin, Thor, Freya, or the Viking heroes that we have now were all passed on by careful word of mouth until they were finally written down as the sagas by descendants of the Vikings centuries later.  Symbols and motifs visually convey (instantly and across language barriers) messages that were deeply meaningful to the women and men that held them. 

Symbols themselves were thought to have power.  Vikings sailed at the mercy of the mighty seas.  They were intimately acquainted with the dangers of battle.  Whether as warriors or as settlers, they lived in the wind, rain, heat, and cold.  They depended on the bounty of the land to feed their children.  Through everything, they felt the hand of fate governing all things.  Divine symbols on amulets, boundary stones, stitched onto clothing, painted on shields, carved into their longships, or as items around their hearths could offer the Viking that small edge he or she needed to face the uncertainties and dangers of life.

Symbols and Motifs

The difference between symbols and motifs is simply a question of formality.  A symbol is an established, recognized visual image that is almost always rendered in a specific way.  Because of this, symbols tend to be very simple (so that almost anyone can draw them).  Don’t let that fool you – symbols are usually considered to be older and more powerful than motifs or written words.  Things like Mjölnir, the Valknut, or the Helm of Awe are symbols.  Motifs are much less formal and can vary greatly from one artist to another.  Motifs are meant to call something to mind, and though they can attract the attention of the gods (especially images of the god’s familiar, such as Odin’s ravens or Freya’s cats) they are not necessarily “visual spells” the way symbols are. Because of this flexibility, new interpretations of ancient Viking motifs are still being made today. 

Following is a brief introduction to some common Norse symbols and motifs.  The list is not all-inconclusive, nor is it meant to be exhaustive but rather just a basic starting point.  Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words.

Runes (Norse Alphabet)

In this article, we have already encountered several examples of runes, and how these symbols were used to convey extraordinary meaning. In the most basic sense, runes were letters, but the word rune also comes from the word for ‘secret’. Runes denoted phonetic sounds (like letters) but also had individual meanings (like the glyphs of other ancient languages). Runic alphabets are called futharks, for just as our term alphabet comes from the first two Greek letters (alpha and beta), the first six runes are F, U, Th, A, R and K. The oldest known futhark arose sometime between the second and fourth century, which is not surprising considering that was the time when war and trade between Germanic and Mediterranean peoples was accelerating. 

The Vikings had an oral culture and did not use runes to write just anything. Runes had power. They were seldom (if ever) penned onto parchment, as the enemies of the Vikings did in France, Ireland, and England; they were carved into wood or stone (hence their angular appearance). Most of our surviving examples of runes are as inscriptions on rune stones commemorating the lives of notable people. They also had expressly magical purposes and were engraved on amulets, talismans, beads, and shields to convey protection, victory, success, convey feeling, etc. Runecasting was another magical use of runes in the Viking Age. Runecasting or “casting runesticks” involves spilling pieces of bone or wood (each carved with a rune) onto a piece of cloth or other boundary. The skilled practitioner then deciphers the message rendered, not only of the runes but also their orientation to each other (similar to Tarot, in which the same card can have very different meanings depending on context).

Runes are associated with the god Odin, who first discovered them (at great pain and effort) from the Well of Destiny. Runes are inscribed on the trunk of Yggdrasil. This discovery of runes means that they are not invented tools of humankind (in the cultural-religious schemata the Vikings understood) but part of the larger, deeper truth. These early runes became known as the Elder Futhark and were used by a wide range of Germanic and Norse tribes. Just before the Viking Age began, the Elder Futhark began to gradually give way to the more streamlined Younger Futhark. The Younger Futhark has fewer runes (only 16) to reflect changes in the Scandinavian language and dialects at that time. Again, the transition was gradual, and runes from the Elder Futhark that were no longer useful as letters remained in use as glyphs for quite some time. And just as we can still interpret the Elder version today (1200 years later), it makes sense that Vikings were most likely capable of reading both. Most of today's modern Viking jewelry relating to Runes reflect the Elder version as it offers more letters for easier translation to the English language.

See our Elder Futhark Rune Translation Chart here.



Valknut (Slain Warriors)

The Vikings believed that people who lived ordinary lives went on to a shadowy existence after death, but those who died gloriously in battle lived on in Valhalla.  The Valkyries would carry the souls of these heroes from the battlefield.  In Valhalla, they would live the Viking version of the good life: fighting great battles against each other every day but – in their immortal state – spending each night in revelry and feasting.  This paradise comes with a price, though.  For the slain warriors are Odin’s army, and they will join the gods in the last, great battle of Ragnarok.  They will fight this doomed battle against the giants and fearsome creatures of darkness for the sake of our world and the world of the gods.

The Valknut is most commonly believed to be the symbol of these slain warriors.  The exact meaning of the three interlocking triangle shapes is unknown.  Clues arise from Celtic and Neolithic art from Northwestern Europe in which interlinking triple shapes are common indicators of magical power and magical essence.  Experts hypothesize that the Valknut may depict the cyclical path between life and death that these warriors experience.  While the details are lost to time, the Valknut symbol now calls to mind courage, bravery, and destiny throughout this life and the next.



 Ægishjálmr (Helm of Awe)

The Ægishjálmr, or Helm of Awe, is a magical Norse symbol of protection and victory.  It appears in several of the sagas being used by both warriors and even dragons!  It also appears in the Galdrabók, an Icelandic grimoire (book of magic), written well after the Viking Age but from an unbroken intellectual lineage to those times. The term “helm” means protective covering and is where we get the term “helmet.” But while some sources describe the Aegishjalmur as a magical object, most sources describe it more as an invisible spell that creates a sphere of protection on the user while casting fear and defeat on an enemy. 

The eight arms or rays emit from the center point of the symbol, which according to the sagas would be the space between the eyes (similar to the Hindu “Third Eye” perhaps).  The arms themselves appear to be constructed from two intersecting runes.  These are Algiz runes for victory and protection intersected by Isarunes, which may mean hardening (literally, ice).  So, the hidden meaning of this symbol may be the ability to overcome through superior hardening of the mind and soul.

 (Viking Compass)

The Vegvisir means “That Which Shows the Way.”  It is a Viking rune stave, similar shape to the Helm of Awe, but while each of the arms of the helm is the same, the arms of the Vegvisir are all different. The symbol was a visual spell of protection against getting lost (particularly at sea) – something that would have been very, very important to the Vikings. The Vikings did have directional finding instruments of their own, such as the Uunartoq disc and sun stones; but most of their navigation came down to visual cues (the sun, stars, flight patterns of birds, color of water, etc.) and, of course, a very strong sense of direction. 

Given the potentially disastrous consequences inherent in such sea voyages, however, it is easy to see why Vikings would want magical help in keeping their way. The symbol comes down to us from the fairly modern Icelandic Huld Manuscript (another grimoire).  The exact age of the Vegvisir is unknown. However, if there were ever a group of people who have an extremely high percentage chance of being ancestors of the true sea-traveling Vikings, it would be the Icelandic people. Modern technology has done a good job overcoming the dangers of becoming lost that were a grim reality for our ancestors, but the Vegvisir is not only protection against being unable to find one’s way in the physical world.  For many people, the Vegvisir represents staying on course in our spiritual voyage, and in finding our way through all the ups, downs, twists, and turns our lives can take.



Triskele (Horns of Odin)

The Horns of Odin (also referred to as the horn triskelion or the triple-horned triskele) is a symbol comprised three interlocking drinking horns.  The exact meaning of the symbol is not known, but it may allude to Odin's stealing of the Mead of Poetry. The horns’ names were Óðrœrir, Boðn, and Són.  The symbol has become especially significant in the modern Asatru faith. The Horns of Odin symbol is also meaningful to other adherents to the Old Ways, or those who strongly identify with the god Odin. 

The symbol appear on the 9th-century Snoldelev Stone (found in Denmark and seen to the right). While the shape of this symbol is reminiscent of the Triqueta and other Celtic symbols, it appears on the Larbro stone (in Gotland, Sweden) which may be as old as the early eighth century.  On this image stone, the Horns of Odin are depicted as the crest on Odin's shield.  Because of its association with the Mead of Poetry and Odin’s artistic aspects, it might also be worn to bring inspiration to writers and performers.


Triquetra (Celtic Knot)

The Triquetra or the Trinity Knot is comprised one continuous line interweaving around itself, meaning no beginning or end, or eternal spiritual life.  This symbol was originally Celtic, not Norse, but with increased contact and assimilation between the Vikings and the peoples of Ireland and Scotland, the Triquetra and other Celtic symbols/motifs became culturally syncretized. 

A similar design was found on the Funbo Runestone found in Uppland, Sweden (seen to the right). Originally, the Triquetra was associated with the Celtic Mother Goddess and depicted her triune nature (the maiden, the mother, and the wise, old woman). The triple identity was an essential feature in many aspects of druidic belief and practice.  Later, Irish and Scottish monks adopted the Triquetra as a symbol of the Christian Trinity.  People today wear the Triquetra for any of these reasons and to be reminded of the continuity and multi-faceted nature of higher truths.


Mjölnir means grinder/crusher/hammer and is also associated with thunder and lightning. When the Vikings saw lightning, and heard thunder in a howling storm, they knew that Thor had used Mjölnir to send another giant to his doom. Thor was the son of Odin and Fyorgyn (a.k.a., Jord) the earth goddess. He was the god of thunder and the god of war and one of the most popular figures in all of Norse mythology. While Viking jarls and kings easily identified with wise, cunning Odin, Thor’s boundless strength, bravery, fortitude, and straightforwardness appealed more to the common Viking freeman. Mjölnir is known for its ability to destroy mountains. But it was not just a weapon. Thor used Mjölnir to hallow, or to bless. With Mjölnir, Thor could bring some things (such as the goats who drew his chariot) back to life. Thor was invoked at weddings, at births, and at special ceremonies for these abilities to bless, make holy, and protect.

Hundreds of Mjölnir amulets have been discovered in Viking graves and other Norse archaeological sites. Some experts have postulated that these amulets became increasingly popular as Vikings came into contact with Christians, as a way to differentiate themselves as followers of the Old Ways and not the strange faith of their enemies. This may or may not be true. Certainly, amulets of many kinds have been in use since pre-historic times. Interestingly, Mjölnir amulets were still worn by Norse Christians (sometimes in conjunction with a cross) after the Old Ways began to fade, so we can see that the symbol still had great meaning even after its relevance to religion had changed. With its association with Thor, the protector god of war and the of nature's awe, the Mjölnir stands for power, strength, bravery, good luck, and protection from all harm. It is also an easily-recognizable sign that one holds the Old Ways in respect.

 Viking Axe
The most famous, and perhaps most common, Viking weapon was the axe. Viking axes ranged in size from hand axes (similar to tomahawks) to long-hafted battle axes. Unlike the axes usually depicted in fantasy illustrations, Viking axes were single-bitted (to make them faster and more maneuverable). Viking axes were sometimes "bearded," which is to say that the lower portion of the axe head was hook-shaped to facilitate catching and pulling shield rims or limbs. The axe required far less iron, time, or skill to produce than a sword; and because it was an important tool on farms and homesteads, the Norse would have had them in hand since childhood. The Viking axe would make the Norsemen famous, and even after the Viking Age waned, the descendants of the Vikings (such as the Varangians of Byzantium or the Galloglass of Ireland) would be sought after as bodyguards or elite mercenaries specifically for their axe skill. 

As a symbol, the axe stands for bravery, strength, and audacity. It is a reminder of heritage and the accomplishments of ancestors who bent the world to their will using only what they had. It is a symbol of the berserker, and all that entails. It conveys the heart or mind's ability to cut through that which holds one back and to forge boldly ahead. 

Yggdrasil (Tree of Life or World Tree)

Yggdrasil is the vast “ash tree” that grows out of the Well of Destiny (Urðarbrunnr).  All nine worlds or nine dimensions are entwined in its branches and its roots.  Yggdrasil, therefore, serves as a conduit or pathway between these nine dimensions that the gods might travel.  If this all seems a little difficult to imagine, you are not alone.  Remember, myth is a means for people to understand cosmic truth.  For our ancestors, myths like these were as close as they could come to science; and even as quantum physics is difficult for many of us to "picture", it is still our way of describing the truth as we have found it to be. Yggdrasil was a way of thinking about reality and about how different realities could be connected (maybe similar in some ways to modern multiverse theory). 

As Dan McCoy of points out, “Yggdrasil and the Well of Urd weren’t thought of as existing in a single physical location, but rather dwell within the invisible heart of anything and everything.” Yggdrasil is a distinctive and unique Norse-Germanic concept; but at the same time, it is similar conceptually to other “trees of life” in ancient shamanism and other religions.   As a symbol, Yggdrasil represents the cosmos, the relationship between time and destiny, harmony, the cycles of creation, and the essence of nature.


The longship was the soul of the Viking. The word "Viking" does not simply mean any medieval Scandinavian, but rather a man or woman who dared to venture forth into the unknown. The longship was the means by which that was accomplished. We have eyewitness accounts from centuries before the Vikings that tell us the Norse always were into their ships, but technological advances they made in ship design around the eighth century revolutionized what these ships were able to do. The Viking ships could row with oars or catch the wind with a broad, square sail. They were flexible and supple in the wild oceans. They were keeled for speed and precision. Most importantly to Viking mobility and military superiority, they had a very shallow draught.

All this meant that Vikings could cross the cold seas from Scandinavia to places that had never heard of them, then use river ways to move deep into these lands all while outpacing any enemies who might come against them. It took the greatest powers in Europe a long time to even figure out how to address this kind of threat. It was no wonder that the Viking ships were called dragon ships, for it was as if an otherworldly force was unleashed upon the peoples of Europe. Accounts from the very first recorded Viking raid (Lindisfarne) even speak of monks seeing visions of dragons in a prophecy of this doom.

There are two ships that stand out in Norse Mythology.  Nalgfar is the ship of the goddess, Hel.  It is made from the fingernails of the dead.  At Ragnarok it will rise from the depths, and – oared by giants and with Loki at its helm – it will cross the Bifrost bridge to lead the assault on Asgard.  The gods have a longship, too, called Skíðblaðnir. Skíðblaðnir is Frey’s ship, and while it is big enough to fit all the gods along with their chariots and war gear, the dwarves made it so cunningly that it can be folded up and carried around in a small bag or pocket.  The gods use Skíðblaðnir to travel together over sea, over land, and even through the air.  This myth shows how the Vikings viewed ships – a good ship can take you anywhere.

The relationship of the Vikings to their ships is even more striking when we realize that - in some ways - these ships were glorified boats, and not what we think of as ships at all. A Viking was completely exposed to the elements and could reach down and touch the waves. In such a vessel you would feel the waters of the deep slipping by just underneath of your feet as sea spray pelted your face. The Vikings sailed these vessels all the way to the Mediterranean, to Iceland and Greenland, and even all the way to North America. This level of commitment, acceptance of risk, rejection of limitations, and consuming hunger to bend the world to one's will is difficult for many of us to accurately imagine. That is why the dragon ship will always symbolize the Vikings and everything about them.


Ravens may be the animal most associated with the Vikings. This is because Ravens are the familiars of Odin, the Allfather. Odin was a god of war, and ravens feasting on the slain were a common sight on the battlefields of the Viking Age. The connection is deeper than that, however. Ravens are very intelligent birds. You cannot look at the eyes and head movement of a raven and not feel that it is trying to perceive everything about you – even weigh your spirit. Odin was accompanied by two ravens – Huginn (“Thought”) and Muninn (“Memory”). Huginn and Muninn fly throughout the nine worlds, and whatever their far-seeing eyes find they whisper back to Odin. Odin is often called hrafnaguð – the Raven God – and is often depicted with Huginn and Muninn sitting on his shoulders or flying around him. 

Ravens are also associated with the 9th century Viking hero, Ragnar Lothbrok. Ragnar claimed descent from Odin through a human consort. This was something that did not sit well with the kings of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (as it implied parity with them), and for that and many other reasons they made war on him. Ragnar’s Vikings charged into battle with a raven banner flying above them, and each time they did, they were victorious. 

Various sagas and chronicles tell us Ragnar's success led him to Finland, France, England, and maybe even as far as the Hellespont in Turkey, and wherever he went, he carried the raven banner with him. His sons Ivar and Ubbe carried the raven banner at the head of the Great Heathen Army that conquered the eastern kingdoms of England in the 9th century. The banner continued to bring victories until their descendant, Sigurd the Stout, finally died under it at the Irish Battle of Clontarf about 150 years later. Harald Hardrada (Hard-ruler), the larger-than-life Norse hero historians like to call "The Last Viking” also carried a raven banner he called “Land Waster.” When this raven banner finally fell in 1066, the Viking Age ended. 

In Norse art, ravens symbolize Odin, insight, wisdom, intellect, bravery, battle glory, and continuity between life and the afterlife. For people today, they also represent the Vikings themselves, and the 200 years of exploits and exploration that these ancestors achieved. Raven coin to the right is a silver penny of Anlaf Guthfrithsson, Hiberno-Norse King of Northumbria (date: c. 939-941 AD).


The wolf is a more enigmatic motif, as it can have several meanings. The most famous to the Vikings was Fenrir (or Fenris-wolf). Fenrir is one of the most frightening monsters in Norse mythology. He is the son of Loki and the giantess, Angrboða; the brother of the great sea serpent Jormungand, and of Hel, goddess of the underworld. When the gods saw how quickly Fenrir was growing and how ravenous he was, they tried to bind him – but Fenrir broke every chain. Finally, the dwarves made an unbreakable lashing with which the gods were able to subdue the creature – but only after he had ripped the god Tyr's hand off. The gods placed a sword in Fenrir’s mouth to keep his jaws from snapping, and from his open, drooling mouth a river called Ván flowed as the wolf dreamed of his revenge. Fenrir is fated to escape someday, at the dawning of Ragnarok, and will devour the sun and moon and even kill Odin in the last days.

Not all the wolves in Norse culture were evil. Odin himself was accompanied by wolves, named Geri and Freki (both names meaning, Greedy) who accompanied him in battle, hunting, and wandering. This partnership between god and wolves gave rise to the alliance between humans and dogs. 

The most famous type of Viking warriors is the berserker – men who “became the bear” and fought in states of ecstatic fury, empowered by the spirit of Odin. There was also a similar type of Viking warrior called an úlfheðnar, which means “wolf hides” (or werewolf). It is not entirely clear whether this was a synonym or a separate class of berserker. Some sources seem to hint that the úlfheðnar could have been like berserkers, but unlike the berserker (who fought alone ahead of the Viking shield walls) the úlfheðnar may have fought in small packs. We may never know for certain. What we do know is that the wolf was sacred to Odin and that some Vikings could channel the wolf to become impervious to “iron and fire” and to achieve great heights of martial prowess and valor in battle. 

The wolf has both positive and negative connotations in Norse culture. The wolf can represent the destructive forces of time and nature, for which even the gods are not a match. The wolf can also represent the most valued characteristics of bravery, teamwork, and shamanistic power. The unifying characteristic in these two divergent manifestations is savagery and the primal nature. The wolf can bring out the worst or the best in people.

8-Legged Horse

Sleipnir ("The Sliding One") is Odin's eight-legged stallion, and is considered by all the skalds to be "the best of horses." This title should be no wonder, as Sleipnir can leap over the gates of Hel, cross the Bifrost bridge to Asgard, and travel up and down Yggdrasil and throughout the Nine Worlds. All this he can do at incredible speeds. While the other gods ride chariots, Odin rides Sleipnir into battle.

Sleipnir has a weird family. He was conceived when the god Loki shape-shifted into a mare to beguile the giant stallion, Svaðilfari (all so that Loki could get the gods out of an ill-advised contract with Svaðilfari's owner - whom Thor killed anyway). Therefore, Sleipnir is the brother of the World-Coiling Serpent, Jörmungandr and the super-wolf, Fenrir.

Some experts hypothesize that Sleipnir's octopedal sliding was inspired by the "tolt" - the fifth gait of Icelandic horses (and their Scandinavian ancestors) that make them very smooth to ride. While this may or may not be true, the idea of eight-legged spirit horses is a very, very old one. Sleipnir's image, or rumors of him, appear in shamanistic traditions throughout Korea, Mongolia, Russia, and of course Northwestern Europe. As in Norse mythology, these eight-legged horses are a means for transporting souls across worlds (i.e., from life to the afterlife). These archeological finds are at least a thousand years older than Viking influence, showing that the roots of this symbol indeed go deep.

Sleipnir symbolizes speed, surety, perception, good luck in travel, eternal life, and transcendence. He combines the attributes of the horse (one of the most important and enduring animals to humankind) and the spirit. He is especially meaningful to athletes, equestrians, travelers, those who have lost loved ones, and those yearning for spiritual enlightenment.

Dragons (and Serpents)

The Vikings had lots of stories of dragons and giant serpents and left many depictions of these creatures in their art. The longship – the heart and soul of the Viking – were even called "dragon ships" for their sleek design and carved dragon-headed prows. These heads sometimes would be removed to announce the Vikings came in peace (as not to frighten the spirits of the land, the Icelandic law codes say). The common images of dragons we have from fantasy movies, with thick bodies and heavy legs come more from medieval heraldry inspired by Welsh (Celtic) legends. The earliest Norse dragons were more serpentine, with long coiling bodies. They only sometimes had wings, and only some breathed fire. 

Some Norse dragons were not just giant monsters - they were cosmic forces unto themselves. Níðhöggr is such a creature. Níðhöggr means "Curse Striker." He coils around the roots of Yggdrasil, gnawing at them and dreaming of Ragnarok. Jörmungandr (also called "The Midgard Serpent" or "The World-Coiling Serpent") is so immeasurable that he wraps around the entire world, holding the oceans in. Jörmungandr is the arch-enemy of Thor, and they are fated to kill each other at Ragnarok.

Luckily, not all dragons were as big as the world - but they were big enough. Heroes like Beowulf met their greatest test against such creatures. Ragnar Lothbrok won his name, his favorite wife (Thora), and accelerated his destiny by slaying a giant, venomous serpent. One of the most interesting dragons was Fáfnir. Fáfnir was originally a dwarf, but through his greed and treachery, he was turned into a fearsome, almost-indestructible monster who slept on a horde of gold. Fáfnir (as well as Níðhöggr) exhibit one of the most frightening characteristics of dragons - dragons are not only big, powerful, and hard to kill; many of them are also highly intelligent. Dragons are as rich in symbolism as they were said to be rich in treasure. As the true, apex predator, dragons represent both great strength and great danger. With their association with hordes of gold or as the captors of beautiful women, dragons can represent opportunity through risk.

Though the Norse did not equate dragons with the Devil, as Christians do (remember, the Norse did not have a Devil), dragons like Fáfnir can sometimes represent spiritual corruption or the darker side of human nature. Most of all, dragons embody the destructive phase of the creation-destruction cycle. This means that they represent chaos and cataclysm, but also change and renewal.


Boars (Bears, Cats and More)

There are numerous other animal motifs in Norse art and culture. Many of these are the fylgja (familiars or attendant spirits) of different gods. When Vikings saw a certain animal (whether in art or real life), they would know that it represented a certain god or goddess. Thor had his goats, and Heimdall had his rams. Freya, one of the most celebrated Norse goddesses, was attended by cats, who also drew her chariot. Some think that Freya's ability to get cats to go together in the same direction represents the strength and subtlety of feminine influence. Freya also had a ferocious boar to accompany her in war, named Hildisvini ("Battle Swine"). Her brother, Freyr (or Frey) - the god of sex, male fertility, bounty, wealth, and peace (who, along with Freya, aptly lends his name to Friday) - had a boar named Gullinborsti ("Golden-Bristled") as his fylgia. Seeing Gullinborsti's symbol or other boar motifs would make a Viking think of peace, happiness, and plenty. Boars are also significant in Celtic mythology, such as the fertility god Moccus, or the Torc Triatha of the goddess Brigid.

Sometimes animals were not the familiars of the gods but were the gods themselves. Odin's wife Frigg could change into a falcon. Other animals were not the fylgja of the gods, but merely had the gods' favor because of their characteristics and personality (in the same way that many of us see ourselves in certain animals). The bear was sacred to Odin, as was the horse. In addition to familiars, various animal spirits populate Norse mythology, such as the eagle who sits in the boughs of Yggdrasil, or the squirrel that scurries along the trunk of the world tree.

Text References


  1. McCoy, D. The Viking Spirit: An Introduction to Norse Mythology and Religion. Columbia. 2016
  2. McCoy, D. Norse Mythology for Smart People. Norse Mythology Accessed January 9, 2018.
  3. Zolfagharifard, E. Hammer of Thor' unearthed: Runes on 1,000-year-old amulet solve mystery of why Viking charms were worn for protection. Daily Mail. Published July 1, 2014.  Accessed January 9, 2018
  4. Howell, E. Parallel Universes: Theories and Evidence. Space. Published April 28, 2016. Accessed January 9, 2018.
  5. Lonegren, S. Runes: Alphabets of Mystery. Accessed January 9, 2018.
  6. Hauge, A. The History of the Runes. 2002. Accessed January 9, 2018.
  7. Viking Age Runes. Viking Archeology. Accessed January 9, 2018,
  8. Kernell, M.H. Gotland’s Picture Stones: Bearers of an Enigmatic Legacy. Gotland Museum, 2012. Accessed January 9, 2018,
  9. Odin’s Horn. Symbolic Dictionary. Accessed January 9, 2018.
  10. Flowers, S. The Galdrabok: An Icelandic Grimoire. Samuel Wiser, Inc. New York. 1989.
  11. Briggs, K. (1976). An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. Pantheon Books, New York. 
  12. Lindhall, C., MacNamara, J., & Lindow, J. (2002) Medieval Folklore. Oxford University Press, New York
  1. Siegfried, K. Odin and the Runes part 2. The Norse Mythology Blog. Published March 26, 2010. Accessed January 11, 2018
  2. Hrafnsmerki - the Raven Banner. Geni. Accessed January 11, 2018
  3. Mastgrave, T. Demons, Monsters, and Ghosts, Oh No! Part XIX: Norwegian Dragons. Broken Mirrors. Published January 26, 2012. Accessed January 11, 2018
  4. About Sleipnir the Eight-Legged Horse. Geni. Accessed January 11, 2018
  5. So the Horse has Eight Legs! The Mindful Horse. Published 2014. Accessed January 11, 2018
  6. Brownworth, L. The Sea Wolves: A History of the Vikings. Crux Publishing, Ltd. United Kingdom. 2014
  7. Saxo Grammaticus. The Danish History, Book Nine. Circa 12th century. Accessed November 10, 2017.
  8. Siegfried, K. Odin and the Runes part 2. The Norse Mythology Blog. Published March 26, 2010. Accessed January 11, 2018
  9. Hrafnsmerki - the Raven Banner. Geni. Accessed January 11, 2018
  10. Mastgrave, T. Demons, Monsters, and Ghosts, Oh No! Part XIX: Norwegian Dragons. Broken Mirrors. Published January 26, 2012. Accessed January 11, 2018
  11. About Sleipnir the Eight-Legged Horse. Geni. Accessed January 11, 2018
  12. So the Horse has Eight Legs! The Mindful Horse. Published 2014. Accessed January 11, 2018
  13. Brownworth, L. The Sea Wolves: A History of the Vikings. Crux Publishing, Ltd. United Kingdom. 2014
  14. Saxo Grammaticus. The Danish History, Book Nine. Circa 12th century. Accessed November 10, 2017.


Image References
    Viking symbols stone -
    Rune Stone -
    Yggdrasil -
    Valknut -
    Helm of Awe -
    Vegvisir -
    Horns of Odin -
    Horns of Odin -
    Triquetra -
    Tree of Life -
    Raven -
    Longship Stone -
    Dragon Head Viking Ship -
    Runes Stone -
    Raven Stone Carving -
    Viking Axe Artifact -
    Viking Animals Carving -
    Dragon Stone -
    Sleipnir Carving -
    Bronze Dragon Carving -
    Niohoggr -
    Bronze Ravens with Odin -
    Viking Ship Stone -
    Raven triskele broach -
    Raven coin -
    Danish mjolnir -